Digestion and absorption are two crucial processes that occur in the human body to maintain homeostasis and ensure the proper functioning of various body systems.

 

 

Digestion

Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used for energy and nutrients. This process begins in the mouth, where food is mechanically broken down by chewing and mixed with saliva, which contains an enzyme called amylase that begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates.

 

As the chewed food moves down the esophagus and into the stomach, it is mixed with stomach acid and enzymes that continue the chemical breakdown of the food. The stomach also mechanically churns and mixes the food, further breaking it down into a liquid-like substance called chyme.

 

After being in the stomach for several hours, the chyme moves into the small intestine, where the majority of digestion and absorption takes place. The walls of the small intestine are lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. The small intestine is also aided in the digestion process by the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, which produce and secrete bile, enzymes, and other substances that aid in the digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

 

Absorption

Absorption is the process by which the body takes in the digested molecules and transports them to the cells and tissues that need them. Absorption occurs mainly in the small intestine, with some absorption also occurring in the stomach and large intestine. The absorbed molecules are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to reach their destination.

 

Digestion And Absorption NEET Questions

Here are some practice questions related to digestion and absorption that you might encounter on a NEET exam:

1. Which of the following is NOT a component of the small intestine?
A) Duodenum
B) Ileum
C) Jejunum
D) Colon

2. Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
A) Producing bile
B) Storing glycogen
C) Secreting insulin
D) Detoxifying harmful substances

3. Which of the following is NOT a component of bile?
A) Bile salts
B) Bile pigments
C) Cholesterol
D) Protein

4. Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas?
A) Producing enzymes for digestion
B) Secreting hormones such as insulin and glucagon
C) Producing bile
D) Storing glycogen

5. Which of the following is NOT a component of the large intestine?
A) Cecum
B) Colon
C) Rectum
D) Stomach

6. Which of the following is NOT a function of the small intestine?
A) Absorbing nutrients
B) Secreting hormones
C) Producing bile
D) Storing glycogen

7. Which of the following is NOT a component of the large intestine?
A) Cecum
B) Colon
C) Rectum
D) Stomach

8. What is the function of the enzyme amylase?
A) Breakdown of fats
B) Breakdown of proteins
C) Breakdown of carbohydrates
D) Breakdown of nucleic acids

9. What is the function of the liver?
A) Producing bile
B) Storing glycogen
C) Secreting hormones
D) All of the above

10. What is the function of the pancreas?
A) Producing enzymes for digestion
B) Secreting hormones such as insulin and glucagon
C) Producing bile
D) All of the above

11. What is the function of the gallbladder?
A) Storing bile
B) Producing bile
C) Secreting enzymes
D) All of the above

12. What is the function of the esophagus?
A) Moving food from the mouth to the stomach
B) Producing enzymes for digestion
C) Absorbing nutrients
D) Storing glycogen

13. What is the function of the stomach?
A) Mixing and mechanically breaking down food
B) Absorbing nutrients
C) Producing enzymes for digestion
D) All of the above

14. What is the function of the villi in the small intestine?
A) Producing enzymes for digestion
B) Secreting hormones
C) Absorbing nutrients
D) Storing glycogen

15. What is the function of the rectum?
A) Storing feces
B) Absorbing nutrients
C) Producing enzymes for digestion
D) All of the above

16. Which of the following is NOT a component of bile?
A) Bile salts
B) Bile pigments
C) Cholesterol
D) Protein

17. Which enzyme is produced by the pancreas and helps digest fats in the small intestine?
A) Amylase
B) Lipase
C) Protease
D) Nuclease

18. Which enzyme is produced by the liver and helps digest carbohydrates in the small intestine?
A) Amylase
B) Lipase
C) Protease
D) Nuclease

19. Which enzyme is produced by the pancreas and helps digest proteins in the small intestine?
A) Amylase
B) Lipase
C) Protease
D) Nuclease

20. Which of the following is NOT a function of the large intestine?
A) Absorbing water and electrolytes
B) Storing feces
C) Producing enzymes for digestion
D) All of the above are functions of the large intestine

21. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of lactose intolerance?
A) Nausea
B) Bloating
C) Diarrhea
D) Constipation

22. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of celiac disease?
A) Diarrhea
B) Weight loss
C) Abdominal pain
D) Constipation

23. Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
A) Detoxifying harmful substances
B) Storing glycogen
C) Secreting insulin
D) Producing bile

24. Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas?
A) Producing enzymes for digestion
B) Secreting hormones such as insulin and glucagon
C) Producing bile
D) Storing glycogen

25. Which of the following is NOT a component of the small intestine?
A) Duodenum
B) Ileum
C) Jejunum
D) Colon

Answers:

  1. D (Colon)
  2. C (Secreting insulin)
  3. D (Protein)
  4. C (Producing bile)
  5. D (Stomach)
  6. C (Producing bile)
  7. D (Stomach)
  8. C (Breakdown of carbohydrates)
  9. D (All of the above)
  10. D (All of the above)
  11. A (Storing bile)
  12. A (Moving food from the mouth to the stomach)
  13. D (All of the above)
  14. C (Absorbing nutrients)
  15. A (Storing feces)
  16. D (Protein)
  17. B (Lipase)
  18. A (Amylase)
  19. C (Protease)
  20. D (All of the above are functions of the large intestine)
  21. D (Constipation)
  22. D (Constipation)
  23. C (Secreting insulin)
  24. C (Producing bile)
  25. D (Colon)

 

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