Biology Tricks For NEET Exam 2023

 

Biology Tricks For NEET Exam

The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) for medical entrance examinations is the most popular examination to get into MBBS, BDS, and various other courses. As the competition becomes more intense each year, students all over India are looking out for ways to ensure they succeed in their NEET exams. Check out this article on biology tricks to help you score high on your NEET exam!

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Simple Genetics

Gregor Mendel is known as the Father of Modern Genetics. His experiments with pea plants in the 1800s helped establish many of the basic principles of inheritance. These principles include dominant and recessive alleles, independent assortment, and segregation. You can use this knowledge to your advantage on the NEET exam by studying up on common genetic disorders and knowing how they are inherited. For example, Huntington's disease is a hereditary disorder that causes nerve cells in the brain to degenerate. Those who inherit this gene from one parent will have a 50% chance of developing the disorder themselves. On another note, Down syndrome is also an inherited condition caused by three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two. Some symptoms may be delays in physical development or mental impairment such as speech difficulties or intellectual disability.


Understanding Punnett Squares

Punnett Squares are a way to predict the probability of an offspring having a certain genotype. To use a Punnett Square, you need to know the genotypes of both parents. The first step is to create a table with two columns and four rows. In the top left corner, write the letter for the father's allele and in the top right corner, write the letter for the mother's allele. Fill in each row with every possible combination of alleles from each parent. For example, if one parent has blue eyes and the other has brown eyes then there will be three rows: Bb (brown-blue), BB (brown-brown), and bb (blue-blue). For each row, calculate the probability that their child will have a specific eye color.


Mendel's Laws

Mendel's first law, also called the law of segregation, states that during the formation of gametes (sperm and eggs), each allele for a given gene segregates from its paired allele so that each gamete receives only one allele. The second law, called the law of independent assortment, states that the alleles for different genes assort independently of each other during gamete formation. This means that the alleles for each gene are passed on to offspring independently of the alleles for other genes.

Also Read: How to Ace Chemistry for NEET Without Coaching

Cytogenetics - The Study of Chromosomes

The NEET exam will often include questions on cytogenetics, which is the study of chromosomes. Chromosomes are structures made up of DNA and proteins that carry the genetic information for a living organism. To understand how cytogenetics works, it is important to first understand what DNA is and how it functions.


Cell Division and Mitosis

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Mitosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell. Interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are the six phases of mitosis. During interphase, the cell grows and copies its DNA. Prophase is when the chromosomes condense and become visible.


Meiosis, or How Sex Cells Are Made

For sexual reproduction to happen, meiosis must first occur. This is how sex cells, or gametes, are made. Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by half. This is important because when gametes fuse during fertilization, they form a zygote with the normal number of chromosomes. If meiosis didn't occur, then the zygote would have twice the normal amount of chromosomes and wouldn't be able to develop properly.


Mendel's Results Were Not Believed at First

In 1865, Gregor Mendel published his results on pea plant inheritance. His results showed that there was a pattern to how traits were passed down, but they were not initially believed. Many scientists thought that inheritance was too complex to have such simple rules governing it. However, over time, Mendel's work was rediscovered and confirmed, and he is now considered the father of genetics.

Also Read: 8 Ways to Study Physics for NEET Without Coaching

The Scientific Method Leads to Further Research

The scientific method is a process that can be used to answer questions about the natural world. The steps of the scientific method are: 

1) ask a question, 

2) do background research, 

3) form a hypothesis, 

4) test the hypothesis, and 

5) analyze the results and draw a conclusion.

If you understand and can apply the scientific method, you'll be able to better answer questions on the NEET exam.


Important Terms in Genetics

Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics for his work on pea plants. He proposed that there are units of inheritance, now called genes, that are passed down from parents to their offspring. 

Genes are located on chromosomes and carry the instructions for making proteins. 

Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that can result in changes in the proteins made by a gene. These mutations can occur spontaneously or they may be caused by exposure to external agents such as radiation or chemicals. If the mutation occurs during gamete formation, it will be inherited by any children born with that mutation.


Steroid hormones

Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol, which is a steroid. They are synthesized in the adrenal glands and gonads, secreted into the bloodstream, and carried to target cells by binding to specific receptors.

Hormones are produced by endocrine glands that secrete them directly into ducts located at various locations throughout your body. For example:

Adrenal glands produce cortisol (which causes stress response), DHEA (a hormone responsible for sex drive), estrogen (which helps maintain bone density), and testosterone (which stimulates growth).

Gonads produce estrogens such as oestradiol or progesterone which help support female reproductive systems such as ovaries during pregnancy or breast development after menopause. The pituitary gland produces growth hormone, which stimulates cell growth and tissue repair. The pancreas produces insulin (which helps to control blood sugar levels) and glucagon (which regulates glucose metabolism). The thyroid gland produces thyroxine which plays a role in the body’s metabolic rate, conversion of food into energy, and regulation of body temperature.


Membrane transport proteins

Membrane transport proteins are proteins that transport molecules across the cell membrane. They are also called carrier proteins, which is a bit misleading because they do not act directly on their target molecules (like carriers do in humans). Instead, membrane transport proteins help facilitate the movement of substances between different cells or organs by acting as a "pusher" for these substances.

For example, The cytochrome c oxidase (CO) complex pumps electrons out of mitochondria and into cytoplasmic space where they can be used by other cellular processes such as respiration or photosynthesis.


Carbohydrate metabolism in humans

Carbohydrate metabolism in humans involves the utilization of glucose from the diet, which is absorbed into the digestive tract and converted to glycogen for storage. This process occurs in both muscle cells and liver cells. When a person eats food containing carbohydrates (e.g., sugar), this food is broken down into individual glucose molecules by bacterial enzymes; these small molecules then diffuse through cell membranes until they reach their respective destinations inside cells—either where they are used as an energy source (glucose), stored as glycogen (a type of carbohydrate) or converted into fat stores that can be used as fuel later on if needed when there's not enough oxygen available at high altitudes or during fasting conditions such as Ramadan.


Blood groups and their significance

Blood group antigens are substances on the surface of red blood cells that can be detected by antibodies in the serum. These entities are inherited and classified according to their antigenic properties. The ABO system classifies these antigens into four types: A, B, AB, and O (universal). In addition to these four types, there is also a fifth type called Rh which has recently been discovered by researchers at Harvard Medical School; this new discovery helps us understand why some people have difficulty getting an infection from donors with Rh-positive blood type while others do not get sick from them at all!

Also Read: How to Study Biology for NEET Without Coaching

Embryonic development & placentation

The placenta is the organ that connects a fetus and its mother. It also allows blood circulation between the two, which helps them stay alive during pregnancy.

In humans, there are two types of placentation: biparietal and parietal. In biparietal placentation, there are two separate circulations running through each body wall; in parietal placentation, only one circulation exists within each body wall for both mother and fetus to share.

The embryo development process starts from fertilization (fertilization occurs when sperm meets egg). A fertilized egg divides into two parts called blastomeres which then start dividing rapidly into eight cells known as the morula stage (24 hours after ovulation) and then develops further into the blastocyst stage (day 5 – 6). During this period, it becomes embedded in the uterine wall so that it can be nourished by uterine fluids called amniotic fluid which keeps them hydrated while developing inside the uterus until birth occurs when the baby emerges outwards from the womb on its own accord after nine months' gestation period begins.


Conclusion

The NEET exam is no joke, but with the right preparation, you can definitely ace it! These biology tips are a great way to get started, but make sure to also consult other resources and practice as much as possible. With enough hard work, you'll be able to achieve your dreams of getting into a good medical school.

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